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357-Scenes From an Earthquake

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The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 is remembered for its destructive intensity and terrible death toll. But the scale of the disaster can mask some remarkable personal stories. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll describe the experiences of some of the survivors, which ranged from the horrific to the surreal.

We'll also consider a multilingual pun and puzzle over a deadly reptile.

Intro:

In the 1600s, a specialized verb described the carving of each dish.

The Earls of Leicester kept quiet in Parliament.

An iconic image: The quake toppled a marble statue of Louis Agassiz from its perch on the second floor of Stanford's zoology building. Sources for our feature:

Malcolm E. Barker, Three Fearful Days, 1998.

Gordon Thomas and Max Morgan-Witts, The San Francisco Earthquake: A Minute-by-Minute Account of the 1906 Disaster, 2014.

Louise Chipley Slavicek, The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906, 2008.

Richard Schwartz, Earthquake Exodus, 1906: Berkeley Responds to the San Francisco Refugees, 2005.

Gordon Thomas, The San Francisco Earthquake, 1971.

Edward F. Dolan, Disaster 1906: The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, 1967.

William Bronson, The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned, 1959.

Charles Morris, The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire: As Told by Eyewitnesses, 1906.

Alexander Olson, "Writing on Rubble: Dispatches from San Francisco, 1906," KNOW: A Journal on the Formation of Knowledge 3:1 (Spring 2019), 93-121.

Susanne Leikam, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire," Journal of Transnational American Studies 7:1 (2016).

Penny Allan and Martin Bryant, "The Critical Role of Open Space in Earthquake Recovery: A Case Study," EN: Proceedings of the 2010 NZSEE Conference, 2010.

Brad T. Aagaard and Gregory C. Beroza, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake a Century Later: Introduction to the Special Section," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 98:2 (2008), 817-822.

Jeffrey L. Arnold, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake: A Centennial Contemplation," Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 21:3 (2006), 133-134.

"... and Then the Fire Was Worse Than the Earthquake ...," American History 41:1 (April 2006), 34-35.

Andrea Henderson, "The Human Geography of Catastrophe: Family Bonds, Community Ties, and Disaster Relief After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire," Southern California Quarterly 88:1 (Spring 2006), 37-70.

Kristin Schmachtenberg, "1906 Letter to the San Francisco Health Department," Social Education 70:3 (2006).

Laverne Mau Dicker, "The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire: Photographs and Manuscripts From the California Historical Society Library," California History 59:1 (Spring 1980), 34-65.

James J. Hudson, "The California National Guard: In the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906," California Historical Quarterly 55:2 (Summer 1976), 137-149.

Michael Castleman and Katherine Ellison, "Grace Under Fire," Smithsonian 37:1 (April 2006), 56-60, 64-66.

Jack London, "Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco Earthquake," Collier's Weekly (May 5, 1906), 107-13.

"San Francisco and Its Catastrophe," Scientific American 94:17 (April 28, 1906), 347.

Bob Norberg, "A City in Flames," [Santa Rosa, Calif.] Press Democrat, April 13, 2006.

"The Ground Shook, a City Fell, and the Lessons Still Resound," New York Times, April 11, 2006.

"Eyewitness to History," San Francisco Examiner, April 18, 1996.

"The San Francisco Earthquake," [Beechworth, Victoria] Ovens and Murray Advertiser, June 23, 1906.

"The Call-Chronicle-Examiner," [Hobart, Tasmania] Mercury, May 30, 1906.

"Earthquake at San Francisco," Fitzroy City Press, May 25, 1906.

"The San Francisco Earthquake," Singleton [N.S.W.] Argus, April 24, 1906.

"Flames Unchecked; Whole City Doomed," Richmond [Ind.] Palladium, April 20, 1906.

"Beautiful Buildings That Lie in Ruins," New York Times, April 20, 1906.

"The Relief of San Francisco," New York Times, April 20, 1906.

"Over 500 Dead," New York Times, April 19, 1906.

"Disasters Suffered by San Francisco," New York Times, April 19, 1906.

"City of San Francisco Destroyed by Earthquake," Spokane Press, April 18, 1906.

"Loss of Life Is Now Estimated at Thousands," Deseret Evening News, April 18, 1906.

San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Marriage Project.

Listener mail:

"Virginia philology ...," New Orleans Daily Democrat, June 12, 1878.

"Many old English names ...," [Raleigh, N.C.] News and Observer, Sept. 20, 1890

"'Darby' -- Enroughty," Richmond [Va.] Dispatch, Nov. 26, 1902.

"A Virginian of the Old School," Weekly Chillicothe [Mo.] Crisis, Feb. 9, 1882.

Leonhard Dingwerth, Grosse und mittlere Hersteller, 2008

Rachael Krishna, "Tumblr Users Have Discovered a Pun Which Works in So Many Languages," BuzzFeed, Feb. 2, 2016.

"The pun that transcends language barriers," r/tumblr (accessed Aug. 28, 2021).

This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Michelle Carter. Here are two corroborating links (warning -- these spoil the puzzle).

You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss.

Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website.

Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode.

If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

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    33:45

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Richard Schwartz, Earthquake Exodus, 1906: Berkeley Responds to the San Francisco Refugees, 2005. Gordon Thomas, The San Francisco Earthquake, 1971. Edward F. Dolan, Disaster 1906: The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire, 1967. William Bronson, The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned, 1959. Charles Morris, The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire: As Told by Eyewitnesses, 1906. Alexander Olson, "Writing on Rubble: Dispatches from San Francisco, 1906," KNOW: A Journal on the Formation of Knowledge 3:1 (Spring 2019), 93-121. Susanne Leikam, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire," Journal of Transnational American Studies 7:1 (2016). Penny Allan and Martin Bryant, "The Critical Role of Open Space in Earthquake Recovery: A Case Study," EN: Proceedings of the 2010 NZSEE Conference, 2010. Brad T. Aagaard and Gregory C. Beroza, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake a Century Later: Introduction to the Special Section," Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 98:2 (2008), 817-822. Jeffrey L. Arnold, "The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake: A Centennial Contemplation," Prehospital and Disaster Medicine 21:3 (2006), 133-134. "... and Then the Fire Was Worse Than the Earthquake ...," American History 41:1 (April 2006), 34-35. Andrea Henderson, "The Human Geography of Catastrophe: Family Bonds, Community Ties, and Disaster Relief After the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Fire," Southern California Quarterly 88:1 (Spring 2006), 37-70. Kristin Schmachtenberg, "1906 Letter to the San Francisco Health Department," Social Education 70:3 (2006). Laverne Mau Dicker, "The San Francisco Earthquake and Fire: Photographs and Manuscripts From the California Historical Society Library," California History 59:1 (Spring 1980), 34-65. James J. Hudson, "The California National Guard: In the San Francisco Earthquake and Fire of 1906," California Historical Quarterly 55:2 (Summer 1976), 137-149. Michael Castleman and Katherine Ellison, "Grace Under Fire," Smithsonian 37:1 (April 2006), 56-60, 64-66. Jack London, "Story of an Eyewitness: The San Francisco Earthquake," Collier's Weekly (May 5, 1906), 107-13. "San Francisco and Its Catastrophe," Scientific American 94:17 (April 28, 1906), 347. Bob Norberg, "A City in Flames," [Santa Rosa, Calif.] Press Democrat, April 13, 2006. "The Ground Shook, a City Fell, and the Lessons Still Resound," New York Times, April 11, 2006. "Eyewitness to History," San Francisco Examiner, April 18, 1996. "The San Francisco Earthquake," [Beechworth, Victoria] Ovens and Murray Advertiser, June 23, 1906. "The Call-Chronicle-Examiner," [Hobart, Tasmania] Mercury, May 30, 1906. "Earthquake at San Francisco," Fitzroy City Press, May 25, 1906. "The San Francisco Earthquake," Singleton [N.S.W.] Argus, April 24, 1906. "Flames Unchecked; Whole City Doomed," Richmond [Ind.] Palladium, April 20, 1906. "Beautiful Buildings That Lie in Ruins," New York Times, April 20, 1906. "The Relief of San Francisco," New York Times, April 20, 1906. "Over 500 Dead," New York Times, April 19, 1906. "Disasters Suffered by San Francisco," New York Times, April 19, 1906. "City of San Francisco Destroyed by Earthquake," Spokane Press, April 18, 1906. "Loss of Life Is Now Estimated at Thousands," Deseret Evening News, April 18, 1906. San Francisco 1906 Earthquake Marriage Project. Listener mail: "Virginia philology ...," New Orleans Daily Democrat, June 12, 1878. "Many old English names ...," [Raleigh, N.C.] News and Observer, Sept. 20, 1890 "'Darby' -- Enroughty," Richmond [Va.] Dispatch, Nov. 26, 1902. "A Virginian of the Old School," Weekly Chillicothe [Mo.] Crisis, Feb. 9, 1882. Leonhard Dingwerth, Grosse und mittlere Hersteller, 2008 Rachael Krishna, "Tumblr Users Have Discovered a Pun Which Works in So Many Languages," BuzzFeed, Feb. 2, 2016. "The pun that transcends language barriers," r/tumblr (accessed Aug. 28, 2021). This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Michelle Carter. Here are two corroborating links (warning -- these spoil the puzzle). You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!
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    356-A Strawberry's Journey

    30:23

    The modern strawberry has a surprisingly dramatic story, involving a French spy in Chile, a perilous ocean voyage, and the unlikely meeting of two botanical expatriates. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll describe the improbable origin of one of the world's most popular fruits. We'll also discuss the answers to some of our queries and puzzle over a radioactive engineer. Intro: Williston Fish bequeathed everything. Philip Cohen invented an English contraction with seven apostrophes. Sources for our feature on Amédée-François Frézier: Amédée-François Frézier, A Voyage to the South-sea, and Along the Coasts of Chili and Peru, in the Years 1712, 1713, and 1714, 1717. George McMillan Darrow, The Strawberry: History, Breeding, and Physiology, 1966. James F. Hancock, Strawberries, 2020. R.M. Sharma, Rakesh Yamdagni, A.K. Dubey, and Vikramaditya Pandey, Strawberries: Production, Postharvest Management and Protection, 2019. Amjad M. Husaini and Davide Neri, Strawberry: Growth, Development and Diseases, 2016. Joel S. Denker, The Carrot Purple and Other Curious Stories of the Food We Eat, 2015. Adam Leith Gollner, The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession, 2013. Mary Ellen Snodgrass, World Food: An Encyclopedia of History, Culture and Social Influence From Hunter Gatherers to the Age of Globalization, 2012. Noel Kingsbury, Hybrid: The History and Science of Plant Breeding, 2011. Christopher Stocks, Forgotten Fruits: The Stories Behind Britain's Traditional Fruit and Vegetables, 2009. Stevenson Whitcomb Fletcher, The Strawberry in North America: History, Origin, Botany, and Breeding, 1917. Dominique D.A. Pincot et al., "Social Network Analysis of the Genealogy of Strawberry: Retracing the Wild Roots of Heirloom and Modern Cultivars," G3 11:3 (2021), jkab015. Marina Gambardella, S. Sanchez, and J. Grez, "Morphological Analysis of Fragaria chiloensis Accessions and Their Relationship as Parents of F.× ananassa Hybrid," Acta Horticulturae 1156, VIII International Strawberry Symposium, April 2017. Chad E. Finn et al., "The Chilean Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis): Over 1000 Years of Domestication," HortScience 48.4 (2013), 418-421. Jorge B. Retamales et al., "Current Status of the Chilean Native Strawberry and the Research Needs to Convert the Species Into a Commercial Crop," HortScience 40:6 (2005), 1633-1634. J.F. Hancock, A. Lavín, and J.B. Retamales, "Our Southern Strawberry Heritage: Fragaria chiloensis of Chile," HortScience 34:5 (1999), 814-816. James F. Hancock and James J. Luby, "Genetic Resources at Our Doorstep: The Wild Strawberries," BioScience 43:3 (March 1993), 141-147. Wilson Popenoe, "The Frutilla, or Chilean Strawberry," Journal of Heredity 12:10 (1921), 457-466. Liberty Hyde Bailey, "Whence Came the Cultivated Strawberry," American Naturalist 28:328 (1894), 293-306. Emily Tepe, "A Spy, a Botanist, and a Strawberry," Minnesota Fruit Research, University of Minnesota, June 11, 2019. "How Strawberries Grew Bigger: Plant History," Financial Times, Aug. 30, 2008. Steve Zalusky, "From 'Hayberry' to 'Strawberry': A Look at the History of the Delicious Fruit," [Arlington Heights, Ill.] Daily Herald, June 26, 2005. "The Modern Strawberry Owes Its Discovery to Ironic Incidents," Charleston [W.V] Daily Mail, March 30, 2005. Peter Eisenhauer, "The Berry With a Past," Milwaukee Journal, June 20, 1990. Eve Johnson, "Sweet Quest for Perfection: Juicy Story With Sexy Angle," Vancouver Sun, June 16, 1990. Listener mail: Thanks to listener Patrick McNeal for sending this 1888 proof of the Pythagorean theorem by Emma Coolidge ("Department of Mathematics," Journal of Education 28:1 [June 28, 1888], 17). The proof is explicated in Robert and Ellen Kaplan's 2011 book Hidden Harmonies: The Lives and Times of the Pythagorean Theorem (pages 103-107). Tony O'Neill, "Glenade Lake and the Legend of the Dobhar-chú," Underexposed, Dec. 4, 2017. Patrick Tohall, "The Dobhar-Chú Tombstones of Glenade, Co. Leitrim," Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 78:2 (December 1948), 127-129. This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Brent Ulbert, who sent these corroborating links (warning -- these spoil the puzzle). You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!
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    355-The Auckland Islands Castaways

    32:17

    In 1864, two ships' crews were cast away at the same time on the same remote island in the Southern Ocean. But the two groups would undergo strikingly different experiences. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll tell the story of the Auckland Islands castaways and reflect on its implications for the wider world. We'll also consider some fateful illnesses and puzzle over a street fighter's clothing. Intro: Lewis Carroll proposed fanciful logic problems. In 1946, a kangaroo made off with William Thompson's money. Sources for our feature on the Aucklands Islands castaways: Joan Druett, Island of the Lost: An Extraordinary Story of Survival at the Edge of the World, 2007. Nicholas A. Christakis, Blueprint: The Evolutionary Origins of a Good Society, 2019. Elizabeth McMahon, Islands, Identity and the Literary Imagination, 2016. A.W. Eden, Islands of Despair, 1955. William Pember Reeves, New Zealand, 1908. F.E. Raynal, Wrecked on a Reef, or Twenty Months on the Auckland Islands, 1880. T. Musgrave, Castaway on the Auckland Isles: Narrative of the Wreck of the "Grafton," 1865. Don Rowe, "A Tale of Two Shipwrecks," New Zealand Geographic 167 (January-February 2021). "The Kindness of Strangers," Economist 431:9141 (May 4, 2019), 81. Peter Petchey, Rachael Egerton, and William Boyd, "A Spanish Man-o-War in New Zealand? The 1864 Wreck of Grafton and Its Lessons for Pre-Cook Shipwreck Claims," International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 44:2 (2015), 362-370. Bernadette Hince, "The Auckland Islands and Joan Druett's Island of the Lost," Shima: The International Journal of Research Into Island Cultures 2:1 (2008), 110. "Mystery of the Shipwreck Shelter," [Wellington, New Zealand] Sunday Star-Times, Feb. 21, 2021. Charles Montgomery, "The Audacity of Altruism: Opinion," Globe and Mail, March 28, 2020. "Was New Zealand Pre-Cooked?" [Wellington, New Zealand] Sunday Star-Times, April 26, 2015. Herbert Cullen, "Wreck of the Grafton Musgrave -- An Epic of the Sea," New Zealand Railways Magazine 9:2 (May 1, 1934). "Twenty Months on an Uninhabited Island," Glasgow Herald, Dec. 27, 1865. "Wreck of the Grafton: Journal of Captain Musgrave," Australian News for Home Readers, Oct. 25, 1865. "New Zealand," Illustrated Sydney News, Oct. 16, 1865. "The Wreck of the Grafton," Sydney Mail, Oct. 7, 1865. "The Wreck of the Schooner Grafton," Sydney Morning Herald, Oct. 2, 1865. "Wreck of the Schooner Grafton," The Age, Oct. 2, 1865. "The Wreck of the Schooner Grafton," Bendigo Advertiser, Sept. 30, 1865. Grafton collection, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (retrieved Aug. 8, 2021). "Grafton Wreck and Epigwaitt Hut," Department of Conservation, Te Papa Atawhai (retrieved Aug. 8, 2021). Listener mail: "Suez Crisis," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 11, 2021). Christopher Klein, "What Was the Suez Crisis?" History, Nov. 13, 2020. "Suez Crisis," Encyclopaedia Britannica, July 19, 2021. "History: Past Prime Ministers," gov.uk (accessed Aug. 13, 2021). "Anthony Eden," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 12, 2021). David Owen, "The Effect of Prime Minister Anthony Eden's Illness on His Decision-Making During the Suez Crisis," QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 98:6 (June 2005), 387–402. David Owen, "Diseased, Demented, Depressed: Serious Illness in Heads of State," QJM: An International Journal of Medicine 96:5 (May 2003), 325–336. Meilan Solly, "What Happened When Woodrow Wilson Came Down With the 1918 Flu?" Smithsonian Magazine, Oct. 2, 2020. Dave Roos, "Woodrow Wilson Got the Flu in a Pandemic During the World War I Peace Talks," History, Oct. 6, 2020. Steve Coll, "Woodrow Wilson’s Case of the Flu, and How Pandemics Change History," New Yorker, April 16, 2020. "History of 1918 Flu Pandemic," Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, March 21, 2018. This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Neil de Carteret and his cat Nala, who sent this corroborating link (warning -- this spoils the puzzle). You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!
  • Futility Closet podcast

    354-Falling Through a Thunderstorm

    33:05

    In 1959, Marine pilot William Rankin parachuted from a malfunctioning jet into a violent thunderstorm. The ordeal that followed is almost unique in human experience. In this week's episode of the Futility Closet podcast we'll describe Rankin's harrowing adventure, which has been called "the most prolonged and fantastic parachute descent in history." We'll also hear your thoughts on pronunciation and puzzle over mice and rice. Intro: How do mirrors "know" to reverse writing? Artist Alex Queral carves portraits from telephone books. Sources for our feature on William Rankin: William H. Rankin, The Man Who Rode the Thunder, 1960. Andras Sóbester, Stratospheric Flight: Aeronautics at the Limit, 2011. Stefan Bechtel and Tim Samaras, Tornado Hunter: Getting Inside the Most Violent Storms on Earth, 2009. Gavin Pretor-Pinney, The Cloudspotter's Guide: The Science, History, and Culture of Clouds, 2007. Christopher C. Burt, Extreme Weather: A Guide & Record Book, 2007. Robert Jackson, Baling Out: Amazing Dramas of Military Flying, 2006. David Fisher and William Garvey, eds., Wild Blue: Stories of Survival From Air and Space, 2000. Missy Allen and Michel Peissel, Dangerous Natural Phenomena, 1993. Sally Lee, Predicting Violent Storms, 1989. James Clark, "The Incredible Story of the Marine Who Rode Lightning," Task & Purpose, June 17, 2016. Burkhard Bilger, "Falling: Our Far-Flung Correspondents," New Yorker 83:23 (Aug. 13, 2007), 58. "The Nightmare Fall," Time, Aug. 17, 1959. Paul Simons, "Weather Eye," Times, Aug. 8, 2016. Paul Simons, "US Airman Survived a Thunder Tumble," Times, April 22, 2006. Paul Simons, "Weatherwatch," Guardian, Aug. 30, 2001. Brendan McWillams, "Jumping Into the Eye of a Thunderstorm," Irish Times, June 22, 2001. Harry Kursh, "Thunderstorm!" South Bend [Ind.] Tribune, May 26, 1963. "Marine Flier Bails Out, But It Takes Him 40 Minutes to Land," Indianapolis Star, Aug. 8, 1959. "Tossed by Elements Half-Hour," [Davenport, Iowa] Quad-City Times, Aug. 8, 1959. "Bails Out 9 Miles Up ... Into a Storm," Des Moines [Iowa] Tribune, Aug. 7, 1959. Listener mail: "Rhoticity in English," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 7, 2021). "Mechelen," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 7, 2021). Marieke Martin, "Where Did You Say You Were? The Perils of Place Name Pronunciation," BBC Blogs, Sept. 4, 2013. "History of Melbourne," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 8, 2021). "Melbourne," Wikipedia (accessed Aug. 8, 2021). This week's lateral thinking puzzle was contributed by listener Jon-Richard. You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!
  • Futility Closet podcast

    353-Lateral Thinking Puzzles

    32:22

    Here are six new lateral thinking puzzles -- play along with us as we try to untangle some perplexing situations using yes-or-no questions. Intro: Lili McGrath's 1915 "floor polisher" is a pair of slippers connected by a cord. Eighteenth-century English landowners commissioned custom ruins. The sources for this week's puzzles are below. In some cases we've included links to further information -- these contain spoilers, so don't click until you've listened to the episode: Puzzle #1 is from listener Moxie LaBouche. Puzzle #2 is from listener Cheryl Jensen, who sent this link. Puzzle #3 is from listener Theodore Warner. Here's a link. Puzzle #4 is from listener David Morgan. Puzzle #5 is from listener Bryan Ford, who sent these links. Puzzle #6 is from listener John Rusk, who sent this link. You can listen using the player above, download this episode directly, or subscribe on Google Podcasts, on Apple Podcasts, or via the RSS feed at https://futilitycloset.libsyn.com/rss. Please consider becoming a patron of Futility Closet -- you can choose the amount you want to pledge, and we've set up some rewards to help thank you for your support. You can also make a one-time donation on the Support Us page of the Futility Closet website. Many thanks to Doug Ross for the music in this episode. If you have any questions or comments you can reach us at podcast@futilitycloset.com. Thanks for listening!

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