Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast podcast

304. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #21 with Dr. Nancy Sweitzer

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15:44
15 Sekunden vorwärts
15 Sekunden vorwärts
The following question refers to Section 7.6 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by premedical student and CardioNerds Intern Pacey Wetstein, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Chief Dr. Teodora Donisan, and then by expert faculty Dr. Nancy Sweitzer.Dr. Sweitzer is Professor of Medicine, Vice Chair of Clinical Research for the Department of Medicine, and Director of Clinical Research for the Division of Cardiology at Washington University School of Medicine. She is the editor-in-chief of Circulation: Heart Failure. Dr. Sweitzer is a faculty mentor for this Decipher the HF Guidelines series.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Clinical Trials Talks Question #21 Ms. Smith is a 56-year-old woman following up in the cardiology clinic for a history of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Two years ago, she was diagnosed with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 30%. Over time, she was initiated and optimized on guideline directed medical therapy. She is currently on Carvedilol 12.5 mg BID, Sacubitril/Valsartan 49/51 mg BID, Spironolactone 25 mg daily, Empagliflozin 10 mg daily, and Furosemide PRN for weight gain.   On today’s visit, her BP is 110/80 mmHg, and her HR is 67 bpm. Labs show a creatinine of 0.9 mg/dL, potassium of 5.1 mEq/L, NT-proBNP of 150 ng/L, and a HbA1c of 5.8%. Follow up transthoracic echocardiogram showed an improvement in LVEF to 55%. What are the most appropriate therapy recommendations for Ms. Smith? A Discontinue spironolactone B Discontinue empagliflozin C Decrease the dose of carvedilol D Continue current therapy Answer #21 The correct answer is D – continue current therapy. The patient described above was initially diagnosed with HFrEF and experienced significant symptomatic improvement with GDMT, so she now has heart failure with improved ejection fraction (HFimpEF). In patients with HFimpEF after treatment, GDMT should be continued to prevent relapse of HF and LV dysfunction, even in patients who may become asymptomatic (Class 1, LOE B-R). Although symptoms, functional capacity, LVEF and reverse remodeling can improve with GDMT, structural abnormalities of the LV and its function do not fully normalize, causing symptoms and biomarker changes to persist or recur if treatment is deescalated. Improvements in EF do not always reflect sustained recovery; rather, they signify remission.   Of note, HF relapse can be defined by at least 1 of the following: o   A drop in the EF by >10% and to < 50% o   An increase in LVEDV by >10% and to higher than the normal range o   A 2-fold rise in NT-proBNP concentration and to > 400 ng/L o   Clinical evidence of HF on examination Choice A is incorrect as it would be incorrect to discontinue spironolactone. A potassium of 5.1 is still within the acceptable limit in a patient who has been on Spironolactone for two years, and this medication is an important part of GDMT for HFrEF.   Despite the improvement in Hb A1c, empagliflozin should be continued for heart failure with improved ejection fraction, as it is part of routine GDMT of HFrEF even in the absence of diabetes.

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