Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast podcast

162. CCC: Critical Care Cardiology – A New Subspecialty for the Modern CCU with Dr. Jason Katz

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55:14
15 Sekunden vorwärts
15 Sekunden vorwärts
The CardioNerds are thrilled to launch The Cardiac Critical Care Series! The series Co-Chairs – Dr. Mark Belkin (Advanced Heart Failure FIT, U Chicago), Dr. Yoav Karpenshif (FIT, U Penn), Dr. Eunice Dugan (CardioNerds Academy Chief Fellow and FIT, Cleveland Clinic), and Dr. Karan Desai (CardioNerds Academy Editor and FIT, U Maryland) - join CardioNerds Co-Founders, Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder to delve into high-yield topics in critical care cardiology. We kickstart this series with one of the early pioneers and national leaders in cardiac critical care – Dr. Jason Katz, Director of Cardiovascular Critical Care and Co-Director of Mechanical Circulatory Support and the CICU at Duke University Medical Center. In this episode, we learn about Dr. Katz’s career path and what motivated him to train in Critical Care Cardiology. He shares early struggles, notable changes in this field’s nascent period, and ongoing challenges in training and practice. We discuss collaboration with other cardiac and non-cardiac specialties and their importance in comprehensive care. Furthermore, we discuss how to advance critical care research, including the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network and future randomized controlled trials to inform our practice and develop standardized protocols. In this small but rapidly growing field, we learn there is much to discover together. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Hirsh Elhence. Claim free CME for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes “I think it's really important not to be afraid of change in order to potentially succeed [...] it's okay to not entirely know what you want to do.” - Dr. Katz when sharing his non-direct career path in a novel field.“There is no greater team sport in cardiology than Cardiac Critical Care” and “I oftentimes think of the Critical Care Cardiologist as sort of the conductor that helps to orchestrate [the team]...” - Dr. Katz when discussing the importance of multidisciplinary teams and need to collaborate with other cardiac and non-cardiac sub-specialties.Many general surgical or medical residency/fellowship graduates are not comfortable caring for patients in the critical care setting. There is a need to revamp critical care training without significantly prolonging training time in order to complement and enhance our current workforce to care for complex, critically ill cardiac patients.“I don't think there's necessarily a one size fits all model, and I think we should be malleable or adaptable to the needs of our trainees and the needs of our patients.” - Dr. Katz when discussing training pathways in Critical Care Cardiology or combining Critical Care with other subspecialties like Interventional Cardiology or Advanced Heart Failure.Dr. Katz suggests that when choosing a Critical Care Cardiology training program: “consider geography, the flexibility of the curriculum, the overall fellowship and social experience, and the clinical setting. Everything that's really important to choosing a cardiology fellowship is more important in my mind than if they actually have a standardized, cardiac critical care pathway.” Show notes 1. What are some recent changes in the field of Critical Care Cardiology? Compared to even just a decade ago, there is a growing interest from medical students to young faculty in pursuing a career in critical care cardiology.At the same time there is evidence that the patient demographics in our CICUs are changing, including more multi-organ dysfunction and many non-cardiac diagnoses. In a recent paper from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN),

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    165. Narratives in Cardiology: Diversity & Inclusion Via Allyship & Leadership with Dr. Bob Harrington – California Chapter

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    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder) join CardioNerds Ambassadors Dr. Pablo Sanchez (FIT, Stanford University) and Dr. Christine Shen (FIT, Scripps Clinic) for a discussion with Dr. Bob Harrington (Interventional Cardiologist, Professor of Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Medicine at Stanford University) about diversity and inclusion in the field of cardiology. This episode discusses Dr. Harrington’s broader approach to mentorship, sponsorship, and allyship; and particularly how (and why) he used his position as the president of the American Heart Association to advocate against all-male panels, or “manels.” Listen to the episode to learn the background and motivations behind his evidence-based efforts to make Cardiology a more inclusive field. Special message by California ACC State Chapter President, Dr. Jamal Rana. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology is a multimedia educational series jointly developed by the Pennsylvania Chapter ACC, the ACC Fellows in Training Section, and the CardioNerds Platform with the goal to promote diversity, equity, and inclusion in cardiology. In this series, we host inspiring faculty and fellows from various ACC chapters to discuss their areas of expertise and their individual narratives. Join us for these captivating conversations as we celebrate our differences and share our joy for practicing cardiovascular medicine. We thank our project mentors Dr. Katie Berlacher and Dr. Nosheen Reza. Video Version • Notes • References • Production Team Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode! There are no relevant disclosures for this episode. The PA-ACC & CardioNerds Narratives in Cardiology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Video version - Diversity and Inclusion https://youtu.be/SnUadVRhH70 Quotables - Diversity and Inclusion “If senior men don’t change the field, it’s not going to change. We have the senior positions. We have to change it.”“You’re missing talent. You’re missing talent of the women who have decided not to go into Cardiology. I say to a lot of my male colleagues...don’t you care about the health of our specialty? Don’t you want the very best people going into it?”“How great is that--to open up an artery in the middle of the night?... What could be better than that?...Why would you not want to be a cardiologist? Frankly, maybe the field is not so friendly to women...And that bothers me greatly because I love the specialty.”“To those who have been given much, much is expected. That’s what people like me should do.”Dr. Bob Harrington Show notes - Diversity and Inclusion What are the gender disparities in the field of Cardiology? 45.8% of residents and fellows in ACGME-accredited programs are women. 14.9% of cardiologists are women. 8% of interventional cardiologists are women [1]. 30.6% of male faculty were full professors, while 15.9% of female faculty are full professors [2].Men are more likely to be influenced by positive attributes of a field, while women are more likely to be influenced by negative attributes [3].3% of percutaneous coronary interventions in the United States are performed by female operators [4]. What is mentorship, sponsorship, and allyship? A mentor provides advice and helps someone develop a skill.A sponsor is an advocate who helps someone secure career advancement opportunities.An ally partners with people, utilizing their power and influence to champion the rights of others [5].According to some studies, women report less sponsorship experiences than men. Additionally, in women it seems to translate less frequently into experiences that further their career (speaking engagements, serving on editorial boards, etc) [6].“I’m a mentor to a few people, I'm a sponsor to many, and I’m an ally to all.” - Dr.
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    164. Case Report: “A Good Candidate” Advanced Heart Failure in an 18-year-old Man with Autism Spectrum Disorder – Cleveland Clinic

    1:03:59

    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), are joined by guest host Dr. Alex Pipilas (CardioNerds Ambassader, Boston University), and Cleveland Clinic fellows, Dr. Gary Parizher, Dr. Ambreen Ali, and Dr. Tiffany Dong. They discuss a case of an 18-year-old man with Autism Spectrum Disorder presented with advanced nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Due to anxiety, he was unable to tolerate right heart catheterization, and the initial evaluation for advanced heart failure therapies was deferred. With assistance from a multidisciplinary team, catheterization was successful, and he underwent cardiac transplantation. Faculty experts, Dr. Richard Dane Meredith (Cardiovascular Imaging, Mission healthcare), Dr. Julie Niezgoda (Congenital Cardiac Anesthesiologist, CCF), and Dr. Ran Lee (Critical Care Cardiology and Advanced HF/Transplant Cardiologist, CCF) provide the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Leticia Helms. Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode!  Disclosures: NoneJump to: Pearls - Notes - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Episode Teaching Pearls - Heart Failure with Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorder should not be regarded as a contraindication to organ transplantation.Respect for patient discomfort with procedures, and efforts to mitigate that discomfort, are essential.A multidisciplinary team approach, especially one utilizing allied health support services, is important to provide care to adolescent patients with advanced organ dysfunction, particularly those with developmental disabilities. Notes - Heart Failure with Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability characterized by impairments in social interaction and the presence of restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities (2). In 2016 the CDC estimated one in 54 children age 8 had ASD (3). Despite ASD’s prevalence, studies of organ transplantation in children and adolescents with developmental disabilities are lacking. Guidelines from the International Society for Heart Lung Transplantation indicate that heart transplantation cannot be recommended in patients suffering from severe cognitive-behavioral disabilities (4). However, the definition of “severe” is not clear, so the assessment of severity of a cognitive impairment, as well as whether the impairment constitutes a contraindication to organ transplantation, falls to healthcare providers on a case-by-case basis.             Cardiac transplantation in a patient with ASD has been documented previously (5). Nonetheless our case represents an important example of advocacy for lifesaving care in patients with developmental disability. Without any one component of the team taking care of our patient, including physicians and allied healthcare providers, he would have died of refractory cardiogenic shock. However, with individualized care and a multidisciplinary combined effort, his providers were able to overcome the obstacles posed by his ASD and deliver indicated interventions. References - Heart Failure with Autism Spectrum Disorder 1.  Baran, David A., et al. "SCAI clinical expert consensus statement on the classification of cardiogenic shock" Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions 94.1 (2019): 29-37. 2. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 5th edition. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association, 2013. 3. Baio J, Wiggins L, Christensen D, et al. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder among children aged 8 years - Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014. MMWR Surveillance Summaries 2018; 67:1-23. 4.
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    163. Cardio-Obstetrics: Pregnancy and Anticoagulation with Dr. Katie Berlacher

    44:41

    Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state associated with increased risk of thromboembolism. Managing anticoagulation during pregnancy has implications for both the mother and the fetus. CardioNerd Amit Goyal joins Dr. Akanksha Agrawal (Cardiology Fellow at Emory University), Dr. Natalie Stokes (Cardiology Fellow at UPMC and Co-Chair of the Cardionerds Cardio-Ob series), and Dr. Katie Berlacher (Program Director of the Cardiovascular Disease Fellowship and Director of the Women’s Heart Program at UPMC) as they discuss the common indications for anticoagulation and their management before, during, and after pregnancy. In this episode, we focus on management of pregnant patients with mechanical valves and venous thromboembolism. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Obstetrics Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls- Pregnancy and Anticoagulation Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state. Pregnancy-associated VTE is a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality.The use of anticoagulation requires a balance between the risks and benefits to the mother and her fetus.The agent of choice for anticoagulation during pregnancy depends on the indication, pre-pregnancy dose of vitamin K antagonist (VKA), and the trimester of pregnancy. For instance, patients with mechanical heart valves, warfarin is generally recommended in the first trimester if the daily dose is less than 5 mg and as the first option for all patients with mechanical valves in the 2nd and 3rd trimester. Use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) has not been systematically studied, they do cross the placenta and their safety remains untested.Warfarin crosses the placenta but is not found in breast milk. LMWH does not cross the placenta and is not found in breast milk. Thus, both these agents can be used by a lactating mother. Quatables - Pregnancy and Anticoagulation “[We] can’t highlight enough that good communication and documentation is vital in such situations” says Dr. Berlacher while discussing the role of a multidisciplinary team including cardiologists, obstetricians and fetal medicine physicians in taking care of a pregnant patient on anticoagulation. “What I love about cardio-obstetrics is that we really can help women in a time that is so important in their life…this is one of the most memorable times in their life..” says Dr. Berlacher when asked what makes your heart flutter about cardio-obstetrics. “Knowledge is power...not just for providers, but also for the patients” says Dr. Berlacher emphasizing the importance of clear communication between physicians and patients. Show notes - Pregnancy and Anticoagulation 1. What makes pregnancy a hypercoagulable state? Pregnancy is a hypercoagulable state associated with higher risk of thromboembolic phenomenon. The three components of Virchow’s triad: hypercoagulability, stasis, and endothelial injury are all present during pregnancy. This leads to a 5-fold increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) during pregnancy that persists for 12 weeks postpartum. The risk for VTE seems to be highest in the first 6 weeks postpartum, with a higher prevalence of clot in the left lower extremity.There are additional risk factors for developing VTE in the postpartum period besides pregnancy itself, and this includes but is not limited to preeclampsia, emergent c-section, hypertension, smoking, and postpartum infection.Choosing anticoagulant therapies during pregnancy involves a fine balance between the risks and benefits to both the mother and fetus. A multidisciplinary team involving the obstetrician, cardiologist, and maternal-fetal medicine team is critical to guide anticoagulation in pregnanc...
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    162. CCC: Critical Care Cardiology – A New Subspecialty for the Modern CCU with Dr. Jason Katz

    55:14

    The CardioNerds are thrilled to launch The Cardiac Critical Care Series! The series Co-Chairs – Dr. Mark Belkin (Advanced Heart Failure FIT, U Chicago), Dr. Yoav Karpenshif (FIT, U Penn), Dr. Eunice Dugan (CardioNerds Academy Chief Fellow and FIT, Cleveland Clinic), and Dr. Karan Desai (CardioNerds Academy Editor and FIT, U Maryland) - join CardioNerds Co-Founders, Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder to delve into high-yield topics in critical care cardiology. We kickstart this series with one of the early pioneers and national leaders in cardiac critical care – Dr. Jason Katz, Director of Cardiovascular Critical Care and Co-Director of Mechanical Circulatory Support and the CICU at Duke University Medical Center. In this episode, we learn about Dr. Katz’s career path and what motivated him to train in Critical Care Cardiology. He shares early struggles, notable changes in this field’s nascent period, and ongoing challenges in training and practice. We discuss collaboration with other cardiac and non-cardiac specialties and their importance in comprehensive care. Furthermore, we discuss how to advance critical care research, including the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network and future randomized controlled trials to inform our practice and develop standardized protocols. In this small but rapidly growing field, we learn there is much to discover together. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Hirsh Elhence. Claim free CME for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardiac Critical Care PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes “I think it's really important not to be afraid of change in order to potentially succeed [...] it's okay to not entirely know what you want to do.” - Dr. Katz when sharing his non-direct career path in a novel field.“There is no greater team sport in cardiology than Cardiac Critical Care” and “I oftentimes think of the Critical Care Cardiologist as sort of the conductor that helps to orchestrate [the team]...” - Dr. Katz when discussing the importance of multidisciplinary teams and need to collaborate with other cardiac and non-cardiac sub-specialties.Many general surgical or medical residency/fellowship graduates are not comfortable caring for patients in the critical care setting. There is a need to revamp critical care training without significantly prolonging training time in order to complement and enhance our current workforce to care for complex, critically ill cardiac patients.“I don't think there's necessarily a one size fits all model, and I think we should be malleable or adaptable to the needs of our trainees and the needs of our patients.” - Dr. Katz when discussing training pathways in Critical Care Cardiology or combining Critical Care with other subspecialties like Interventional Cardiology or Advanced Heart Failure.Dr. Katz suggests that when choosing a Critical Care Cardiology training program: “consider geography, the flexibility of the curriculum, the overall fellowship and social experience, and the clinical setting. Everything that's really important to choosing a cardiology fellowship is more important in my mind than if they actually have a standardized, cardiac critical care pathway.” Show notes 1. What are some recent changes in the field of Critical Care Cardiology? Compared to even just a decade ago, there is a growing interest from medical students to young faculty in pursuing a career in critical care cardiology.At the same time there is evidence that the patient demographics in our CICUs are changing, including more multi-organ dysfunction and many non-cardiac diagnoses. In a recent paper from the Critical Care Cardiology Trials Network (CCCTN),
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    161. Lipids: Triglycerides – EPA and DHA Deep Dive with Dr. Erin Michos

    34:01

    CardioNerds Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic) and Rick Ferraro (Director of CardioNerds Journal Club and cardiology fellow at the Johns Hopkins Hospital) join Dr. Erin Michos (Associate Professor of Cardiology at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Editor-In-Chief of the American Journal of Preventative Cardiology) for a discussion about the effect of DHA and EPA on triglycerides and why DHA/EPA combinations may have exhibited limited benefits in trials. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC). Relevant disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Lipid Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls The best intervention for heart disease is prevention! The InterHeart trial showed that 9 modifiable risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, abdominal obesity, dietary patterns, physical activity, consumption of alcohol, and psychosocial factors) predict 90% of acute myocardial infarction. So many acute events can be prevented1.Atherosclerotic vascular disease events increase across a range of triglyceride levels, even from 50-200mg/dL. So even in a relatively normal range, lower triglycerides seem to be better. Over ¼ of US adults have triglycerides over 150.While 8% of US adults take fish oil supplements, multiple meta-analyses have failed to show any benefit to the use of dietary omega-3 supplementation2. Dietary supplements these are not meant for medical use and are not studied or regulated as such! Show notes 1. What are DHA and EPA? DHA, or docosahexaenoic acid, and EPA, or eicosapentaenoic acid, are n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, also known as omega-3 fatty acids. These compounds have been of considerable interest for over two decades given observed association of high dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake with reduced cardiovascular events3. As both are important omega-3 fatty acids, trials on the benefits of DHA and EPA have often focused on the two compounds in combination. 2. What was the GISSI-Prevenzione Trial and why was it Important? GISSI-Prevenzione trial (Lancet 1999), was one of the earliest trials to study DHA and EPA4. In this trial, the authors evaluated the effect of omega-3 supplementation as a combination pill of DHA and EPA on cardiovascular events and death in patients with recent myocardial infarction (the last three months). Over a 3.5-year follow-up period, participants treated with DHA/EPA combination experienced a significant reduction in death, nonfatal MI, and stroke.As this was an early trial, patients were largely not on statins, as these were not supported at the time of study initiation (Only 5% were on cholesterol-lowering medications at baseline, and only 45% were on cholesterol-lowering therapy at study completion). The benefits seen in this trial may not extend to modern practice with patients on contemporary background therapy.The trial participants were also not representative of our modern patients for a variety of other reasons. 85% of participants in the trial were men. 42.2% of patients in EPA/DHA arm were current smokers, and 35.4% were prior smokers. Only 14.2% of patients had diabetes and 14.7% with BMI >30.Notably, the decrease in triglycerides in this trial was only 3%, implying that triglyceride lowering did not entirely explain the benefit in cardiovascular events seen. 3. What about the data after the GISSI-Prevensione Trial? After this positive trial for DHA/EPA in combination, subsequent trial data in support of DHA/EPA has been less robust.
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    160. Case Report: An Upstream Cause of Sudden Cardiac Arrest – Cedars-Sinai

    53:07

    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), join CardioNerds FIT Ambassador, Dr. Natasha Cuk and her co-fellows, Dr. Lily Stern, and Dr. Paul Marano from the Cedars-Sinai Cardiology Fellowship for some late afternoon smoothies on the beach. They discuss the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with sudden cardiac arrest and was ultimately found to have a mobile intraluminal aortic thrombus adherent to a penetrating ulcer in the ascending aorta. This mobile thrombus was ultimately thought to be the cause of transient ischemia and the patient’s cardiac arrest. We discuss a differential for sudden cardiac arrest, initial management after resuscitated cardiac arrest, a differential for arterial thrombus, and review an illness script for penetrating atherosclerotic ulcers. Dr. Dominick Megna provides the provides the E-CPR for this episode. Audio editing by Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship). This Case Report has been published in JACC Case Reports! Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode!  Disclosures: NoneJump to: Pearls - Notes - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Episode Teaching https://twitter.com/LilySternMD/status/1460811173113184263?s=20 Pearls - Cardiac Arrest due to Aortic Thrombus After cardiac arrest, the initial ECG obtained after the return of spontaneous circulation can provide important information on the etiology of the arrest. The ECG can narrow our structured differential, for which one approach would be the following breakdown: acute ischemic events, structural heart disease, arrhythmogenic syndromes with no structural abnormality, and then non-cardiac causes such as drugs, toxins, trauma, metabolic arrangementsThe risk vs benefit of emergent angiography after sudden cardiac arrest depends on balancing the potential benefit from revascularization in an acute ischemic event vs bleeding risks and potential delays in other aspects of care, particularly given that a large percentage of mortality is related to neurologic injury from the arrest, which would not be impacted by immediate angiography. The available randomized controlled trial evidence has not demonstrated a survival or neurologic outcome benefit to immediate angiography, and the decision depends on weighing the risk/benefit for each patient.Due to high flow, a thrombus in the aorta should prompt an investigation for causes focused on the other two ‘points’ of Virchow’s triad (aside from stasis): endothelial injury and hypercoagulability.A penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer (PAU) is a deep atherosclerotic lesion where there is a focal ulceration of the elastic lamina that extends through the medial layer of the aortic wall. These lesions are most commonly associated with extensive atherosclerosis, but can also occur related to inflammatory, infectious, or traumatic causes.A PAU is a type of acute aortic syndrome and accounts for up to 8% of total acute aortic syndromes. It may present with a spectrum of symptoms, including as an incidental finding on cardiothoracic imaging or a severe chest and back pain, like an aortic dissection. While it is a subtype of aortic syndrome, PAU can also progress to become aortic dissection and rupture. Notes - Cardiac Arrest due to Aortic Thrombus 1. How might a post-ROSC ECG help determine the etiology of a sudden cardiac arrest? During our case, we discussed a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis for sudden cardiac arrest. We broke down the causes into the buckets of: Acute ischemic eventsStructural heart diseaseArrhythmogenic syndromes with no structural heart diseaseNon-cardiac causes such as drugs, toxins, trauma, and metabolic arrangements The post-ROSC ECG can provide immediate information to help narrow our diffe...
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    159. ACHD: Coarctation of the Aorta with Dr. Ari Cedars

    43:45

    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder),  ACHD series co-chair Dr. Agnes Koczo (UPMC), and episode FIT lead, Dr. Natasha Wolfe (Washington University) join Dr. Ari Cedars   (Director of the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Program at Johns Hopkins) for a discussion about coarctation of the aorta.   In this episode we discuss the presentation and management of unrepaired and repaired coarctation of the aorta in adults. We discuss the unique underlying congenital anatomy of coarctation and how that impacts physiology, clinical presentation, and diagnostic findings. We discuss the importance of long-term routine follow-up and screening of patients (including those who have been “repaired”) for common complications such as hypertension, re-coarctation, and aneurysm development. We end with a discussion of treatment options for coarctation and its complications. Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease (ACHD) series provides a comprehensive curriculum to dive deep into the labyrinthine world of congenital heart disease with the aim of empowering every CardioNerd to help improve the lives of people living with congenital heart disease. This series is multi-institutional collaborative project made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Josh Saef, Dr. Agnes Koczo, and Dr. Dan Clark. The CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease Series is developed in collaboration with the Adult Congenital Heart Association, The CHiP Network, and Heart University. See more Claim free CME for enjoying this episode! Disclosures: None Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Adult Congenital Heart Disease PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls Coarctation of the aorta can occur as a discrete stenosis or as a long and hypoplastic hypoplastic aortic arch segment. Most commonly it is a discrete stenosis located at the insertion site of the ductus arteriosus just distal to the left subclavian artery.Three quarters of patients with coarctation of the aorta also have a bicuspid aortic valve.Hypertension is the most common long-term complication of coarctation of the aorta, whether repaired or unrepaired. Unrepaired coarctation is a rare cause of secondary hypertension in young adults with a difference in upper extremity and lower extremity BP by ≥ 20 mmHg. Systemic hypertension may not be consistently identifiable at rest in those with repaired coarctation, thus guidelines recommend ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or stress testing to identify hypertension with exertion.Chest and brain imaging via CT or MRI should be done every 5-10 years to screen for other long-term complications including re-coarctation (rate ~11%), aortic aneurysm development (higher risk in those with concurrent bicuspid aortic valve), pseudoaneurysm, aortic dissection, and cerebral aneurysms.Repair of coarctation or re-coarctation is indicated for patients who are hypertensive with a BP gradient ≥ 20 mmHg (Class I recommendation). Catheter-based stenting is the preferred approach when technically feasible. Show notes 1. What is the proposed embryologic origin of coarctation of the aorta? The aortic arch and its branches develop at 6-8 weeks fetal gestation. We all start with six aortic arches that go on to become the great arteries of the head and neck. The 4th arch forms the thoracic aortic arch and isthmus. The 6th arch persists as the proximal pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus. Thoracic aortic coarctation is therefore a manifestation of abnormal embryologic development of the 4th and 6th arches.There are two main theories regarding how aortic coarctation occurs.
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    158. Cardio-Obstetrics: Pregnancy and Valvular Heart Disease with Dr. Uri Elkayam

    1:06:57

    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), Cardio-OB series co-chair and University of Texas Southwestern Cardiology Fellow, Dr. Sonia Shah, and episode FIT lead and UT Southwestern Cardiology Fellow Dr. Laurie Femnou discuss valvular heart disease in pregnancy with cardio-obstetrics expert Dr. Uri Elkayam, Professor of Medicine and OB Gyn at the University of Southern California. In this pearl-packed episode, we discuss the diagnosis, acute management, and long-term considerations of valvular heart disease in pregnancy. Through a series of cases, we review the physiologic changes in pregnancy that make certain valvular lesions well-tolerated, while others are associated with a much higher risk of peripartum complications. We also discuss which patients to consider referring for valvular intervention, the ideal timing, and which valvular interventions are safest in the peripartum period. We promise, you won’t want to miss this clinically high-yield episode with Dr. Elkayam, the father of cardio-obstetrics and an absolute legend in the field! Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Adriana Mares. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Cardio-Obstetrics Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls Most women with severe valvular heart disease can be managed medically throughout pregnancy.Right sided valvular lesions are generally better tolerated than left-sides lesions, and regurgitant lesions are generally better tolerated than stenotic lesions. However, the context and etiology of the valve dysfunction must be taken into consideration. Severe tricuspid valve regurgitation, for example, can be associated with a failing right ventricle and undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BNP, severity of symptoms, and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) assessed by echocardiography can be helpful in differentiating normal pregnancy-related symptoms from symptoms due to hemodynamically significant valvular lesions.Valvular interventions during pregnancy are safe when well-planned and performed by experienced operators, and they can significantly improve morbidity and mortality in women who remain symptomatic despite medical management.A multidisciplinary team-based approach is important when managing patients with valvular heart disease during pregnancy. Quatables “We do not need to perform prophylactic valvular intervention in women prior to pregnancy if they do not meet criteria for intervention otherwise. A patient with regurgitant lesion will tolerate pregnancy well, provided that they are not                candidates for surgery already.” “Valvuloplasty during pregnancy is a great and effective procedure, but restenosis occurs. For women who desire future pregnancies, preconception evaluation is important to determine if valve intervention is indicated prior to conceiving.” Show notes What is the epidemiology of valvular heart disease in pregnancy?Cardiovascular conditions affect up to 4% of pregnancies, with valvular heart disease being the most common cardiac pathology encountered during pregnancy worldwide.In the developing world, rheumatic valve disease is still the most common etiology, with mitral valve most commonly affected, followed by the aortic valve.In the developed world, congenital aortic valve pathology is most common. What are the hemodynamic effects of stenotic vs. regurgitant lesions during pregnancy?In normal pregnancy, there is a significant drop in systemic vascular resistance as early as 5 weeks gestational age. This drop leads to a transient decrease in perfusion to the kidneys, causing an increase in fluid retention and expansion of plasma volume. At the same time, there is an increase in heart rate which becomes more pronounced la...
  • Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast podcast

    157. Case Report: A Case of Complete Heart Block In A Young Adult – Stanford University

    1:00:17

    CardioNerds (Amit Goyal and Daniel Ambinder), join CardioNerds FIT Ambassador, Dr. Pablo Sanchez, and his co-fellows, Dr. Jimmy Tooley and Dr. Maggie Ning from Stanford University for an important case discussion about an An otherwise healthy young adult presented with fatigue and was found to be in complete heart block due to sarcoidosis. Dr. Ronald Witteles, (Stanford University Program Director for the Stanford Internal Medicine residency program and advanced heart failure specialist who's particular expertise focuses in the treatment of amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, and cardio-oncology) provides the E-CPR for this episode.  Claim free CME just for enjoying this episode!  Disclosures: Dr. Witteles reports that he has served as an advisor for Pfizer, Alnylam, Eidos, Regerenon Pharmaceuticals, Janssen, and IonisJump to: Patient summary - Case teaching - References CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Patient Summary - Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis An otherwise healthy young adult presented with fatigue and was found to be in complete heart block. Imaging studies were suspicious for cardiac and pulmonary sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis was confirmed on biopsy. Given the high risk of future cardiac events our patient underwent a dual chamber ICD implantation. He was started on prednisone and methotrexate for immunosuppression. Case Media - Click to enlarge Episode Teaching - Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis Pearls - Complete Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis Cardiac sarcoidosis is a disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas involving the heart that can exist alone or together with other organ system involvementDepending on the sites of cardiac involvement it can present as conduction system disease, ventricular arrhythmia, or heart failureCardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in patients with history of sarcoidosis involving other organ systems who develop left ventricular dysfunction, wall motion abnormalities, or arrhythmiasCardiac sarcoidosis should be considered in patients who present with otherwise unexplained heart block or ventricular tachycardia (VT) It is generally recommended that patients with cardiac sarcoidosis with an indication for pacemaker receive an ICD at time of implantation regardless of history of VT Notes - Complete Heart Block due to Sarcoidosis 1. What is Sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis is a rare disorder of inflammation characterized by the formation of noncaseating granulomas in affected tissues. It most commonly involves the pulmonary system, but other organ systems can be involved including the heart. Sarcoidosis typically affects young adults, and its etiology is still uncertain. 2. What is Cardiac Sarcoidosis and how is it diagnosed? Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) can occur alone or with systemic disease and depending on the cardiac sites of involvement, can present as conduction system disease, ventricular arrhythmia, heart failure, or sudden cardiac death. 3. How is Cardiac Sarcoidosis diagnosed? Diagnosis of CS is challenging as the gold standard is endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), though sensitivity of EMB is low given the often-patchy tissue involvement. Societal guidelines on the diagnosis of CS require either a positive EMB or biopsy-confirmed extracardiac sarcoidosis with evidence of secondary criteria to suggest cardiac involvement - unexplained VT, high grade AV block, third degree AV block, LVEF <40%, or characteristic imaging finding on cardiac MRI and cardiac PET. The diagnosis of CS must be considered in all patients with a diagnosis of extra cardiac sarcoidosis who develop symptoms to suggest cardiac involvement. Additionally, screening for CS should be done in all patients <60 years of a...
  • Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast podcast

    156. Lipids: Triglycerides – Pathophysiology to Clinical Outcomes with Dr. Matthew Budoff

    33:49

    CardioNerds Dan Ambinder, Dr. Tommy Das (Program Director of the CardioNerds Academy and cardiology fellow at Cleveland Clinic), and episode lead, Dr. Teodora Donisan (CardioNerds Academy fellow and incoming Chief fellow and Beaumont Health Internal Medicine resident) join Dr. Matthew Budoff (professor of medicine at David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and the Endowed Chair of Preventive Cardiology at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center) for a discussion about triglycerides from pathophysiology to clinical outcomes. This episode is part of the CardioNerds Lipids Series which is a comprehensive series lead by co-chairs Dr. Rick Ferraro and Dr. Tommy Das and is developed in collaboration with the American Society For Preventive Cardiology (ASPC). Triglyceride (TG) metabolism can produce a by-product called remnant lipoproteins, which can be atherogenic. Most guidelines consider hypertriglyceridemia to start at values ≥ 150 mg/dl. It is the most common dyslipidemia, as it can occur in 30% of the general population. Although fasting levels are usually obtained per the current US protocol, there is evidence that non-fasting TG levels might be a better indicator of cardiovascular (CV) risk as these levels may better reflect the usual levels that the body is exposed to. There are multiple primary (genetic) causes of elevated TG, but these are rarer than lifestyle factors, medical conditions, or medications. Genetic association studies are helping better define the level of CV risk stemming from elevated TG-levels, which will impact how we target lifestyle and treatment interventions in the future. #CardsJC STRENGTH Trial Journal Club Relevant disclosures: Dr. Matthew Budoff has funding from General Electric. Pearls • Notes • References • Guest Profiles • Production Team CardioNerds Lipid Series PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Triglycerides - Pathophysiology to Clinical Outcomes In the process of metabolizing TG, remnant lipoproteins are formed, which have been shown to promote atherogenesis. TG themselves have not been directly linked to this process and have not been studied in large population studies, and so are considered risk enhancing factors, and not risk factors per se. Elevated triglyceride levels measured on our traditional lipid panels act as a proxy for the Apo-B rich lipoproteins, such as VLDL, which directly cause atherogenesis.Hypertriglyceridemia is defined as TG values of ≥150 mg/dl, although there is emerging evidence that even high-normal values (100-140 mg/dl) can still be associated with increased CV risk. You can think of TG in a similar fashion to glucose values (patients with prediabetes are still at higher CV risk than those with normal glycemic level). These are continuous and not binary variables!Fasting lipid levels are not necessarily a better predictor of CV events than non-fasting lipid levels. A non-fasting TG level can potentially provide information on the body’s metabolism similarly to how we interpret glucose tolerance tests, although there isn’t such a standardized approach in the lipid world yet.Before testing for genetic causes, make sure you review secondary causes of elevated TG. Don’t forget to evaluate for lifestyle factors and medical causes (diabetes, alcohol abuse, hypothyroidism, pregnancy) and to review the medication list (pay attention to thiazides, non-selective beta blockers, antipsychotics and others).TG values of ≥ 175 mg/dl are considered a risk enhancing factor and can aid in the decision to be more aggressive with lifestyle changes or starting treatment.Although treatment will be reviewed in depth in future episodes, Dr. Budoff suggests we “back away from using fibrates for CV event protection.” Even though they are efficient at lowering TG levels,

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